According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), the newly discovered virus, COVID-19 is an infectious virus. Most people throughout the world are affected by this virus. The entire world is scaring from this virus. The government of all countries is helping their nation to cure this virus. most of the world is announcing lockdown situations for at least 21 days. Because it is an infectious disease. If an infected person touches anything or sneezes or coughs, immediately the surrounding people will get this virus. So the government announced lockdown to break this chain of spreading the virus to others. Most of the infected people will get running nose, body pains, and also mild to moderate respiratory illness.
It is a viral disease. So it continues to a serious issue to public health. According to WHO, in the last twenty years, several viral infestations like the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) from 2002 to 2003, and H1N1 influenza in 2009, have been founded. Recently, in Saudi Arabia in the year 2012, a new virus was founded namely the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Most recently, in Wuhan is the largest metropolitan area in China’s Hubei province, an epidemic viral case with an unexplained low respiratory infectious situation was found. This was first reported to the WHO Country office in China on 31st December 2019. Then the officials of WHO traced back to the beginning of December 2019 about these symptomatic persons. But they are unable to identify the real causing agent for these infectious symptoms. These are are the first cases in the world and classified as “Pneumonia of unknown etiology”. The Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and many other local CDCs started serious investigation programs. And then they founded that this illness is now attributed to a novel virus and is belonging to the COronavirus (CoV) family.
The WHO Director-General, Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus on 11th February 2020, announced that this is a disease caused by the newly invented coronavirus called “COVID-19”. It is the acronym of “Coronavirus disease 2019”. In the last twenty years, two additional coronaviruses fast-spreading diseases have occurred. SARS-CoV started a large scale spreading disease beginning in China and it spreads to 24 countries. At that time approximately 8000 cases are involved and 800 deaths occurred and still, it causes scattered cases. Initially, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) termed it as the SARS-CoV-2 virus because it is very similar to the one that caused the SARS outbreak (SARS-CoVs). The coronavirus (now called COVID-19) has first occurred in China. It came from a seafood and meat market in Wuhan, China, in December.
Overview of COVID-19
The Coronavirus is a virus which spreads very fastly from human to human. This virus is found in animals and rarely it will be transmitted from animals to human beings. And then transmits from human to human. Still, now the researchers and the officials of the World Health Organisation founded three coronaviruses that can be spread to other human beings. Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses, some of which cause illness in people, and others that circulate among mammals and birds. Rarely, animal coronaviruses can spread to humans, and then spread between people. Zoonotic coronaviruses have emerged in recent years to cause human outbreaks such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). They are mentioned and described with the mortality rate below:
An acute respiratory infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It was first identified in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China, in December 2019. Since then it has spread to many countries around the world, with the World Health Organization declaring it a pandemic. The case fatality rate is approximately 2.3% (based on initial information).
The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS):
An acute viral respiratory tract infection caused by MERS-CoV. It was first identified in Saudi Arabia in 2012. Cases have been limited to the Arabian Peninsula and its surrounding countries, and travelers from the Middle East or their contacts. The case fatality rate is approximately 37%.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS):
An acute viral respiratory tract infection caused by SARS-CoV. It was first identified in the Guangdong province of Southern China in 2002. The epidemic affected 26 countries and resulted in more than 8000 cases and 774 deaths in 2003. There have been no reported cases since 2004. The case fatality rate is approximately 10%.
Prevention of COVID-19
According to the WHO, there is no medicine for this newly founded virus COVID-19. There is one way to break this virus chain of spreading to others is prevention. The best way to prevent and slow down transmission is to be well informed about the COVID-19 virus, the disease it causes and how it spreads. Protect yourself and others from infection by washing your hands or using an alcohol-based rub frequently and not touching your face.
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The COVID-19 virus affects different people in different ways. It is a respiratory disease and most infected people will develop mild to moderate symptoms and recover without requiring special treatment. People who have underlying medical conditions and those over 60 years old have a higher risk of developing severe disease and death. Illness in humans mainly manifests as a respiratory infection, or sometimes gastrointestinal infection. The clinical spectrum of illness varies from no symptoms or mild respiratory symptoms to severe, rapidly progressive pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock, or multiorgan failure resulting in death.
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